Russia and Iran have been cooperating in part because the U.S. has sanctioned both countries, making it important that they work together. The two have set aside their geopolitical rivalry in the region to achieve this, but it is unclear whether it will last.
Jordan seems to have weathered an immediate crisis following a week of mass protests, maintaining its impressive history of survival in an otherwise hostile and unstable region. Yet numerous challenges lie ahead.
China is currently deploying a policy of industrial transfer in the Middle East. This is an external trade and industry policy, a transplanting of domestic economic institutions in external geographies. The financing of this China geo-industrial policy will reshape the Central Asia-Middle East-Africa trade and production nexus in the coming decade.